First: hvac of mosques
1- Calculation of thermal load for the air conditioning of mosques
The thermal load is calculated to adapt mosques to the maximum absorptive capacity as the Times of “Friday prayers, holidays” to overcome the large thermal load resulting from the number of worshippers present, taking into account the thermal load resulting from the windows because of their large number and size, so as to be used in the natural lighting of the mosque at daylight times.
Also take into account the thermal load generated by lighting and its large size for use in industrial lighting of the mosque in the evening.
Mosques are also characterized by high roof heights, this must be taken into account when calculating the air conditioning convection, and also take into account the percentage of clean air specified for each individual, and all these criteria are indicated by the tables in the code (ASHRAE)
Note that these thermal loads resulting from windows can be reduced by choosing the thicknesses and types of glass insulation that passes light and blocks heat, also for the lighting load, it is possible to choose lighting types that have been customized to give the highest light efficiency with the lowest heat emission and the lowest possible electricity consumption.
2- Zoning of air conditioning areas for mosques
To address the excessive heat load needed throughout the week for the air conditioning of mosques, the mosque is divided into separate areas with air conditioning
Such as feeding the imam's area and the first four rows of worshippers with one central conditioner or a number hidden air conditioners separate from feeding the rest of the mosque and successively until the completion of the entire area of the mosque (daily homework chapel alone, men's Chapel on the second floor, women's prayer, imam and front area, funeral area, main entrance ... etc.)
This distribution allows the use of a partial operating system for air conditioning in the mosque or phased operation, which reduces the operating cost of the mosque and saves electricity, as well as the convenience of air conditioners and reduce maintenance operations.
2- Grills and distribution in the hvac of Mosques
When distributing the air outlets in the air conditioning of mosques, some points should be taken into account, including focusing on the air distribution in the main area in the middle, which in general mosques have a roof opening covered with glass for the sky (SKY LIGHT) used for natural lighting of the mosque and have the largest thermal load in the mosque
It is preferable to choose (DOWNFLOW AIR grill) to overcome the height and deliver cold air as quickly as possible down to the worshipers.
4- The most appropriate system in the hvac of mosques
It is preferable to use central air conditioners when air conditioning mosques, because their maintenance is carried out outside the building and they do not have to close the mosque or remove carpets for maintenance and cleaning air filters due to the high ceiling height
This makes maintenance difficult and increases its cost, because scaffolding is needed to reach those units at that height, as well as internal units, when there is a problem with water drainage, leakage occurs inside the mosque, ruining the existing carpets and harming worshippers, gypsum ceilings and paints.
4- The “thermostat " in hvac of Mosques
When locating the thermostats that control the air conditioners, it is preferable to place them in a high place or a closed box can be installed on them, so as not to leave them to be tampered with by the students present, so that they are calibrated at an average temperature that suits everyone, and in some cases they are assembled in one place (control room) or a centralized control system is
It is preferable to install air curtains at the entrances and exits to reduce the ingress of hot air inside the hotel, which can negatively affect the cooling efficiency
Some air fresheners can be installed in air conditioning units and an operating system is made at a time to ensure that a good smell of the place is maintained regularly and automatically
Periodic Maintenance of air conditioners and cleaning of their filters to reduce bacteria and unpleasant odors accumulated on them and to maintain cooling efficiency
As stated in the universal code (ASHRAE) about the standards ventilation for mosques and places of worship with a high number of people or worshipers
The air renewal process comes at the head of these standards, as the air must be changed up to 10:6 times per hour (ACH Air change rate) in bathrooms
This is done in the framework of protecting personnel from infection and reducing bacteria, also to maintain a good smell of the place.
This is done in several ways, including natural methods (ventilation holes in walls, windows ...etc.) or mechanical methods (push and suction fans, moisture extraction devices ...etc.)